สการ์โบโรห์นอร์ทยอร์กเชียร์

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สการ์เบอโร
Scarborough, North Yorkshire. (4 of 7).jpg
เดอะแกรนด์โฮเทล
Scarborough is located in North Yorkshire
Scarborough
สการ์เบอโร
ที่ตั้งภายในNorth Yorkshire
ประชากร61,749 ( สำมะโนประชากร พ.ศ. 2554 ) [1]
เขตเลือกตั้ง108,600
Demonymสการ์โบเรียน
การอ้างอิงกริด OSTA040880
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โพสต์ทาวน์แผลเป็น
เขตรหัสไปรษณีย์YO11 - YO13
รหัสโทรออก01723
ตำรวจนอร์ทยอร์กเชียร์
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ยอร์กเชียร์
54°16′38″N 0°24′06″W / 54.2773 ° N 0.4017 ° W / 54.2773; -0.4017พิกัด : 54.2773 ° N 0.4017 ° W54°16′38″N 0°24′06″W /  / 54.2773; -0.4017

สการ์ ( / s k ɑː ขR ə / ) [2]เป็นเมืองที่เหนือทะเลชายฝั่งของนอร์ทยอร์ค , สหราชอาณาจักร ในอดีตเป็นส่วนหนึ่งของNorth Riding of Yorkshireเมืองนี้อยู่ระหว่าง 10–230 ฟุต (3–70 ม.) เหนือระดับน้ำทะเลจากท่าเรือที่สูงชันขึ้นไปทางเหนือและตะวันตกไปยังหน้าผาหินปูน ส่วนที่เก่าแก่ของเมืองตั้งอยู่รอบ ๆ ท่าเรือและได้รับการปกป้องด้วยแหลมหิน

ด้วยประชากรเพียง 61,000 กว่าคนสการ์โบโรห์เป็นสถานตากอากาศที่ใหญ่ที่สุดบนชายฝั่งยอร์กเชียร์ [3]เมืองนี้มีอุตสาหกรรมการประมงและการบริการรวมถึงเศรษฐกิจดิจิทัลและเศรษฐกิจสร้างสรรค์ที่กำลังเติบโตรวมทั้งเป็นสถานที่ท่องเที่ยว ผู้อยู่อาศัยในเมืองนี้รู้จักกันในชื่อ Scarborians [4]

ประวัติ[ แก้ไข]

ต้นกำเนิด[ แก้ไข]

ซากปรักหักพังของปราสาท Scarborough

มีรายงานว่าเมืองนี้ก่อตั้งขึ้นเมื่อประมาณปีค. ศ. 966 ในชื่อSkarðaborgโดยThorgils Skarthiซึ่งเป็นผู้โจมตีชาวไวกิ้งแม้ว่าจะไม่มีหลักฐานทางโบราณคดีที่สนับสนุนการอ้างสิทธิ์เหล่านี้ในช่วงทศวรรษที่ 1960 ซึ่งเป็นส่วนหนึ่งของการประกวดเหตุการณ์ในสการ์โบโรห์[5]ที่มาของความเชื่อนี้เป็นส่วนของSaga ไอซ์แลนด์ในศตวรรษที่ 4 มีสถานีส่งสัญญาณของโรมันอยู่สั้น ๆบนแหลมสการ์โบโรห์และมีหลักฐานการตั้งถิ่นฐานของยุคหินและยุคสำริดก่อนหน้านี้มาก[6]อย่างไรก็ตามในไม่ช้าการตั้งถิ่นฐานใหม่ใด ๆ ก็ถูกเผาไหม้จนราบเป็นหน้ากลองโดยวงดนตรีคู่แข่งของชาวไวกิ้งภายใต้ Tosti ( Tostig Godwinson), ลอร์ด Falsgrave และแฮรัลด์ที่สามของนอร์เวย์ การทำลายล้างและการสังหารหมู่หมายความว่ามีน้อยมากที่จะถูกบันทึกไว้ในการสำรวจของDomesdayในปี ค.ศ. 1085 [7]หมู่บ้าน Falsgrave ดั้งเดิมยังเป็นแองโกล - แซกซอนมากกว่าพวกไวกิ้ง [8]

สมัยโรมัน[ แก้]

โรมันสถานีสัญญาณถูกสร้างขึ้นบนสถานที่บนหน้าผาสามารถมองเห็นวิวทะเลทางทิศเหนือ มันเป็นหนึ่งในเครือข่ายของสถานีส่งสัญญาณที่สร้างขึ้นเพื่อเตือนภัยจากผู้บุกรุกทางทะเล เหรียญที่พบในไซต์แสดงว่าถูกครอบครองจากค.   ค.ศ. 370จนถึงต้นศตวรรษที่ห้า [9]

ในปี 2564 การสำรวจทางธรณีฟิสิกส์ที่โครงการพัฒนาที่อยู่อาศัยในอีสต์ฟิลด์สการ์โบโรห์เผยให้เห็นโครงสร้างใต้พื้นผิวที่ยื่นออกไปในพื้นที่ขนาดประมาณสนามเทนนิสสองสนาม เมื่อขุดพบอาคารจำนวนมากรวมทั้งโรงอาบน้ำและหอคอยทรงกระบอกที่มีห้องที่แผ่ออกมาจากมันถูกพบ Karl Battersby จาก North Yorkshire County Council กล่าวว่าอาคารเหล่านี้“ ได้รับการออกแบบโดยสถาปนิกที่มีคุณภาพสูงสุดในยุโรปตอนเหนือในยุคนั้นและสร้างโดยช่างฝีมือที่ดีที่สุด” ผู้ตรวจสอบโบราณสถานที่Historic EnglandKeith Emerick อธิบายว่าการค้นพบนี้เป็น“ การค้นพบครั้งสำคัญที่สุดครั้งหนึ่งของชาวโรมันในทศวรรษที่ผ่านมา” มีแผนที่จะแก้ไขรูปแบบการพัฒนาที่อยู่อาศัยกู้ซากและรวมไว้ในพื้นที่สีเขียวสาธารณะ Historic England ขอแนะนำให้ซากศพได้รับการคุ้มครองเป็นอนุสรณ์สถานที่กำหนดไว้ [10] [11] [12]

ยุคกลาง[ แก้ไข]

Scarborough กู้คืนภายใต้กษัตริย์เฮนรี่ที่สองที่สร้างAngevinปราสาทหินบนแหลมและได้รับการเช่าเหมาลำในเมือง 1155 และ 1163, [13]อนุญาตให้ตลาดบนหาดทรายและการสร้างกฎโดยเบอร์เจส

เอ็ดเวิร์ดได้รับปราสาท Scarboroughเพื่อที่เขาชื่นชอบ, เพียร์ส Gaveston ต่อมาปราสาทถูกปิดล้อมโดยกองกำลังที่นำโดยบารอนเพอร์ซีย์วาเรนน์คลิฟฟอร์ดและเพมโบรก Gaveston ถูกจับและนำตัวไปที่Oxfordจากนั้นไปที่Warwick Castleเพื่อประหารชีวิต [14]

ใน 1318 เมืองถูกเผาโดยสก็อตภายใต้เซอร์เจมส์ดักลาสต่อไปจับเบอร์วิคเมื่อ Tweed [15]

ในยุคกลาง , แฟร์สการ์ได้รับอนุญาตในกฎบัตร 1253 จัดเทศกาลซื้อขายหกสัปดาห์ดึงดูดพ่อค้าจากทั่วยุโรป เริ่มตั้งแต่วันอัสสัมชัญ 15 สิงหาคมจนถึงวันไมเคิลมาส 29 กันยายน งานนี้ยังคงจัดต่อเนื่องเป็นเวลา 500 ปีตั้งแต่ศตวรรษที่ 13 ถึงศตวรรษที่ 18 และเป็นที่ระลึกในเพลงScarborough Fair :

คุณกำลังจะไปงาน Scarborough Fair หรือไม่?
-parsley, สะระแหน่, โรสแมรี่และโหระพา ... [16]

การพัฒนารีสอร์ท[ แก้ไข]

Photochrom of Scarborough, 1890s

สการ์โบโรห์และปราสาทเปลี่ยนมือเจ็ดครั้งระหว่างผู้นิยมราชวงศ์และสมาชิกรัฐสภาในช่วงสงครามกลางเมืองอังกฤษในช่วงทศวรรษที่ 1640 ซึ่งต้องทนต่อการปิดล้อมที่ยาวนานและรุนแรงสองครั้ง หลังจากสงครามกลางเมืองเมืองส่วนใหญ่ตกอยู่ในซากปรักหักพัง

ในปีค. ศ. 1626 Mrs Thomasin Farrer [17] ได้ค้นพบธารน้ำที่เป็นกรดไหลจากหน้าผาแห่งหนึ่งไปทางทิศใต้ของเมือง[18]สิ่งนี้ทำให้เกิดสคาร์โบโรสปาและหนังสือของดร. โรเบิร์ตวิตตีเกี่ยวกับน้ำสปาที่ตีพิมพ์ในปี ค.ศ. 1660 ดึงดูดนักท่องเที่ยวเข้ามาในเมืองมากมาย สคาร์โบโรห์สปากลายเป็นรีสอร์ทริมทะเลแห่งแรกของสหราชอาณาจักรแม้ว่าจะไม่มีการรายงานเครื่องอาบน้ำแบบม้วนตัวแรกบนผืนทรายจนถึงปี 1735 ที่นี่เป็นสถานที่พักผ่อนยอดนิยมสำหรับเศรษฐีในลอนดอนเช่นAndrew Millarผู้ขายหนังสือและครอบครัวของเขา แอนดรูจูเนียร์ลูกชายของพวกเขาเสียชีวิตที่นั่นในปี พ.ศ. 2393 [19]

การมาของทางรถไฟสการ์โบโรห์ - ยอร์กในปีพ. ศ. 2388 ได้เพิ่มจำนวนนักท่องเที่ยว สถานีรถไฟสการ์โบโรห์อ้างว่ามีที่นั่งบนชานชาลาที่ยาวที่สุดในโลก [20]จากยุค 1880 จนกระทั่งสงครามโลกครั้งที่สการ์เป็นหนึ่งในสถานที่ท่องเที่ยวที่ปกติสำหรับเบสทัศนศึกษาเมื่อสิบห้ารถไฟจะใช้เวลาระหว่าง 8,000 และ 9,000 พนักงานของเบสของเบอร์ตันโรงเบียร์ในการเดินทางประจำปีริมทะเล

สถาปัตยกรรม[ แก้ไข]

Scarborough Town Hallสร้างเสร็จในปีพ. ศ. 2387

เมืองนี้มีโบสถ์แองกลิกันเซนต์มาร์ตินออนเดอะฮิลล์สร้างขึ้นในปี พ.ศ. 2405–63 เป็นโบสถ์ประจำตำบลเซาท์คลิฟฟ์ มันมีการทำงานโดยDante กาเบรียลรอส , วิลเลียมมอร์ริส , เอ็ดเวิร์ดโจนส์และฟอร์ดบราวน์ Madox [21]จอห์นกิบสันสถาปนิกหนุ่มของมอลตันได้ออกแบบCrown Spa Hotelซึ่งเป็นโรงแรมที่สร้างขึ้นตามวัตถุประสงค์แห่งแรกของสการ์โบโรห์ [22]

"เบลล์" ที่ประภาคารท่าเรือสการ์โบโรห์ปี 2550

โครงสร้างจอร์เจียเด่น ได้แก่พิพิธภัณฑ์หอก , สะพานคลิฟและประภาคาร Scarborough ท่าเรืออาคารวิคตอเรีย ได้แก่ คลาสสิกห้องสมุดประชาชนและตลาดฮอลล์ทาวน์ฮอลล์ , Scarborough สปาที่หอศิลป์ , คริสตจักรใต้คลิฟเมธและScarborough สถานีรถไฟสถาปัตยกรรมของสการ์โดยทั่วไปประกอบด้วยขนาดเล็กต่ำ, สีส้มpantile -roofed อาคารในเมืองเก่าที่มีคุณค่าทางประวัติศาสตร์และมีขนาดใหญ่คลาสสิกและอาคารวิคตอเรียปลายสะท้อนให้เห็นถึงเวลาในช่วงศตวรรษที่ 19 ในขณะที่มันขยายตัวออกไปจากศูนย์กลางประวัติศาสตร์ของมันเข้าไปในสปารีสอร์ทชายฝั่ง

แผ่นหินอนุสรณ์วางอยู่บนหลุมฝังศพของ Anne Bronte ในสุสานของ St Mary

สถานที่สำคัญที่โดดเด่นในเมืองคือGrand Hotelบน St Nicholas Cliff ออกแบบโดยCuthbert Brodrickแห่ง Hull เสร็จสมบูรณ์ในปีพ. ศ. 2410 ในช่วงเวลาที่เปิดให้บริการเป็นโรงแรมที่ใหญ่ที่สุดและมีโครงสร้างอิฐที่ใหญ่ที่สุดในยุโรป ใช้งานก่ออิฐสีเหลืองในท้องถิ่นที่มีรายละเอียดสีแดงและเป็นไปตามธีมของกาลเวลา: หอคอยสี่หลังแสดงถึงฤดูกาล 12 ชั้นของเดือน 52 ปล่องไฟในสัปดาห์และ 365 ห้องนอนดั้งเดิมเป็นตัวแทนของวันของปี แผ่นฟ้านอกเครื่องหมายของโรงแรมซึ่งนักประพันธ์แอนน์Brontëเสียชีวิตในปี 1849 เธอถูกฝังอยู่ในสุสานของโบสถ์เซนต์แมรี่โดยปราสาท [23]

สถาปัตยกรรมสมัยศตวรรษที่ 20 จำนวนหนึ่งตั้งอยู่ภายในย่านช้อปปิ้งหลักและในรูปแบบของชานเมืองโดยรอบ อาคารในศตวรรษนี้ ได้แก่Futurist Theatre (1914), Stephen Joseph Theatre , ศูนย์การค้า Brunswick (1990) และGCHQ Scarboroughซึ่งเป็นสถานีดาวเทียมในเขตชานเมือง

เหตุการณ์การเดินเรือ[ แก้ไข]

โปสเตอร์การรับสมัครสงครามโลกครั้งที่หนึ่งแสดงให้เห็นถึงผลกระทบของการทิ้งระเบิดของเยอรมันในสการ์โบโรห์ในปี 1914

ในช่วงสงครามโลกครั้งที่หนึ่งเมืองนี้ถูกทิ้งระเบิดโดยเรือรบเยอรมันของHigh Seas Fleetซึ่งเป็นการกระทำที่ทำให้อังกฤษตกใจ (ดูRaid on Scarborough, Hartlepool และ Whitby ) [24] ประภาคารท่าเรือสการ์โบโรห์สร้างขึ้นในปี 1806 ได้รับความเสียหายจากการโจมตี[25]การโจมตีเรืออูในเมือง 25 กันยายน 2459 บนเรือเห็นสามคนเสียชีวิตและอีกห้าคนได้รับบาดเจ็บกองเรือลากอวนสิบเอ็ดลำของสการ์โบโรห์จมในทะเลในการโจมตีเรืออูอีกครั้งเมื่อวันที่ 4 กันยายน พ.ศ. 2460

ในปีพ. ศ. 2472 Ascendent ที่ลอยด้วยไอน้ำได้จับปลาทูน่าครีบน้ำเงินขนาด 560 ปอนด์ (250 กิโลกรัม) ( ปลาทูน่าครีบน้ำเงินแอตแลนติก ) และนักแสดง Scarborough ได้มอบเงินให้ลูกเรือ 50 ชิลลิงเพื่อให้เขาสามารถจัดแสดงเป็นสถานที่ท่องเที่ยวได้[26] เกมจับปลาทูน่าขนาดใหญ่นอกเมืองสการ์โบโรห์เริ่มต้นอย่างมีประสิทธิภาพในปี พ.ศ. 2473 เมื่อลอเรนโซ "ลอว์รี" มิทเชล - เฮนรีจับปลาทูน่าที่จับได้ด้วยไม้เท้าและสายที่มีน้ำหนัก 560 ปอนด์ (250 กิโลกรัม) [27] สโมสรสุภาพบุรุษ British Tunny Club ก่อตั้งขึ้นในปี พ.ศ. 2476 และตั้งสำนักงานใหญ่ในเมือง ณ สถานที่ซึ่งปัจจุบันเป็นร้านอาหารที่มีชื่อเดียวกัน[27] [28]สการ์โบโรห์กลายเป็นรีสอร์ทสำหรับสังคมชั้นสูง[26]การแข่งขันทูน่าชิงถ้วยระดับโลกของผู้หญิงจัดขึ้นเป็นเวลาหลายปี [26]

พันเอก (และต่อมาเซอร์) เอ็ดเวิร์ดเปลือกที่ดินปลาทูน่าสถิติโลก 798 ปอนด์ (362 กิโลกรัม) จับบันทึกได้ถึง 40 ปอนด์ (18.1 กิโลกรัม) จากที่หนึ่งติด off โนวาสโกโดยแชมป์อเมริกันเกรย์ [29] [30] [31]บันทึกของอังกฤษซึ่งยังคงยืนอยู่คือปลาน้ำหนัก 851 ปอนด์ (386 กก.) ที่จับได้จากสการ์โบโรห์ในปีพ. ศ. 2476 โดยลอรีมิทเชล - เฮนรี [26]

เมื่อวันที่ 5 มิถุนายน พ.ศ. 2536 สการ์โบโรห์ได้พาดหัวข่าวในระดับนานาชาติเมื่อแผ่นดินถล่มทำให้ส่วนหนึ่งของโรงแรมโฮลเบ็คฮอลล์พร้อมกับสวนของมันตกลงไปในทะเล แม้ว่าใบจะถูกโรยด้วยโขดหินและที่ดินมีหญ้าปกคลุมไปนานแล้ว แต่หลักฐานการพังทลายของหน้าผายังคงมองเห็นได้ชัดเจนจาก The Esplanade ใกล้กับสวน Shuttleworth [32]

สการ์ได้รับการมีส่วนเกี่ยวข้องกับจำนวนของกองทัพเรือรวมทั้งรอพอลโล , รกล้าหาญและHMS ดันแคน [33]

ภูมิศาสตร์[ แก้ไข]

แหลมที่มีปราสาทมองจากทางทิศใต้

The most striking feature of the town's geography is the high rocky promontory pointing eastward into the North Sea.[34] The promontory supports the 11th-century ruins of Scarborough Castle and divides the seafront into two bays, north and south.[35]

Scarborough's South Bay from Sea Cliff Road

The South Bay was the site of the original medieval settlement and harbour, which form the old town.[36] This remains the main tourist area, with a sandy beach, cafés, amusements, arcades, theatres and entertainment facilities. The modern commercial town centre has migrated 440 yards (400 m) north-west of the harbour area and 100 feet (30 m) above it and contains the transport hubs, main services, shopping and nightlife. The harbour has undergone major regeneration including the new Albert Strange Pontoons,[37]a more pedestrian-friendly promenade, street lighting and seating.

Scarborough Hills and the Sea Cut (Scalby Beck)
The North Bay

The North Bay has traditionally been the more peaceful end of the resort and is home to Peasholm Park which, in June 2007, was restored to its Japanese-themed glory, complete with reconstructed pagoda,[38] a new boat house was added in 2018.[39] For many years a mock maritime battle (based on the Battle of the River Plate) has been regularly re-enacted on the boating lake with large model boats and fireworks throughout the summer holiday season.[40] The North Bay Railway is a miniature railway running from the park through Northstead Manor Gardens to the Sea Life Centre at Scalby Mills. The North Bay Railway has what is believed to be the oldest operational diesel-hydraulic locomotive in the world. Neptune was built in 1931 by Hudswell Clarke of Leeds and is appropriately numbered 1931.[41]

Northstead Manor Gardens include the North Bay Railway and three other attractions: a water chute, a boating lake with boats for hire during the summer season and the open-air theatre. The water chute is now grade II listed and is one of the oldest surviving water chutes in Britain, with the ride of today being the same as when it was opened in the 1930s.[42]

North Bay and South Bay are linked by Marine Drive, an extensive Victorian promenade, built around the base of the headland. Overlooking both bays is Scarborough Castle, which was bombarded by the German warships SMS Derfflinger and SMS Von der Tann in the First World War.[43] The town was badly damaged by a bombing raid in the Second World War, on 18 March 1941. Both bays have popular sandy beaches and numerous rock-pools at low tide.

The South Cliff Promenade above the Spa and South Cliff Gardens has wide views of the South Bay and old town. Its splendid Regency and Victorian terraces are still intact, with a mix of quality hotels and flats. The ITV television drama The Royal and its recent spin-off series, The Royal Today were both filmed in the area. The South Bay has the largest illuminated 'star disk' anywhere in the UK. It is 85 feet (26 m) across and fitted with subterranean lights representing the 42 brightest stars and major constellations that can be seen from Scarborough in the northern skies.[44]

To the south-west of the town, beside the York to Scarborough railway line, is an ornamental lake known as Scarborough Mere. In the 20th century the Mere was a popular park, with rowing boats, canoes and a miniature pirate ship – the Hispaniola – on which passengers were taken to 'Treasure Island' to dig for doubloons.[45] Since the late 1990s the Mere has been redesigned as a natural space for picnics, fishing and walkers. In 2012 a new snack bar was built alongside the Mere. The lake is now part of the Oliver's Mount Country Park and the Hispaniola now sails out of Scarborough harbour during the summer season.

Surrounding the River Derwent as it flows into the sea are high hills with tall, dense grasses and fertile soil, due to the stream 'Sea Cut' leading from the River Derwent to the estuary at the North Sea.[46] The area has flourishing and vibrant flora and crop growth.

Climate[edit]

The climate is temperate with mild summers and cool, windy, winters. The hottest months of the year are July and August, with temperatures reaching an average high of 17 °C and falling to 11 °C at night. The average daytime temperatures in January are 4 °C, falling to 1 °C at night. The station's elevation of 110 metres (360 ft) is far above sea level compared to the immediate coastline, where the climate is likely slightly milder year round.

Climate data for Scarborough
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)15.0
(59.0)
13.9
(57.0)
20.0
(68.0)
23.1
(73.6)
25.1
(77.2)
29.1
(84.4)
27.5
(81.5)
31.4
(88.5)
24.7
(76.5)
25.2
(77.4)
16.7
(62.1)
13.0
(55.4)
31.4
(88.5)
Average high °C (°F)6.4
(43.5)
6.7
(44.1)
8.8
(47.8)
11.0
(51.8)
13.5
(56.3)
16.5
(61.7)
19.0
(66.2)
19.0
(66.2)
16.5
(61.7)
12.9
(55.2)
9.3
(48.7)
6.7
(44.1)
12.2
(54.0)
Average low °C (°F)1.7
(35.1)
1.5
(34.7)
2.9
(37.2)
4.6
(40.3)
7.1
(44.8)
9.8
(49.6)
12.0
(53.6)
12.1
(53.8)
10.3
(50.5)
7.6
(45.7)
4.3
(39.7)
2.2
(36.0)
6.4
(43.5)
Record low °C (°F)−8.0
(17.6)
−8.4
(16.9)
−8.7
(16.3)
−5.0
(23.0)
−3.0
(26.6)
0.1
(32.2)
4.2
(39.6)
3.2
(37.8)
0.8
(33.4)
−2.4
(27.7)
−7.7
(18.1)
−9.1
(15.6)
−9.1
(15.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches)57.3
(2.26)
46.2
(1.82)
49.8
(1.96)
52.1
(2.05)
43.8
(1.72)
63.0
(2.48)
54.4
(2.14)
64.4
(2.54)
60.7
(2.39)
64.8
(2.55)
69.6
(2.74)
66.3
(2.61)
692.4
(27.26)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)12.210.510.49.28.610.19.59.59.311.012.412.5125.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours54.780.5111.9156.1205.6190.6204.2188.2142.6103.964.550.21,553
Source 1: Met Office[47]
Source 2: Voodoo Skies (extreme temperatures)[48]

Economy[edit]

Scarborough Marina and Harbour with the Castle in view

Scarborough's fishing industry is still active, though much reduced in size. The working harbour is home to a fish market including a shop and wooden stalls where fresh, locally-caught seafood can be purchased by the public. A seaweed farm has been in operation since 2018, with a licence to go into a large-scale commercial operation from 2019. SeaGrown have an intent to move into the bioplastics market.[49]

The tourism trade continues to be a major part of the local economy with Scarborough being the second most-visited destination in England by British holidaymakers.[50] While weekend and mid-week-break trade are tending to replace the traditional week-long family holiday, the beaches and attractions are busy throughout summer, a contrast to quieter winter months.

Brunswick shopping centre

Scarborough's town centre has many major shopping chains alongside boutique independent shops. As well as a main pedestrianised shopping street (home to various chain stores and eateries) and the Brunswick shopping centre, boutique stores can be found on Bar Street and St Thomas Street. The town also has an indoor market with a large range of antique shops and independent traders in its vaults, and a smaller market on the South Bay. Boyes, a discount department store chain which has over 65 stores across the north is based at Eastfield, on the outskirts of Scarborough. Its flagship store is located in Queen Street.[51]

Industries[edit]

Pavilion House

Manufacturers based in Scarborough include the Plaxton Company (a division of Alexander Dennis) which has been building coaches and buses since 1907[52] Sirius Minerals which is developing a potash mine near Whitby has its headquarters in Scarborough.[53] McCain Foods has a factory in the town for over 50 years, and sponsored the previous football stadium.[54] Scarborough power station supplied electricity to the town and the surrounding area from 1893 to 1958. It was owned and operated by the Scarborough Electric Supply Company Limited from 1893 to 1925, then by Scarborough Corporation until the nationalisation of the British electricity supply industry in 1948. The coal-fired power station had an electricity generating capacity of 7 MW prior to its closure in October 1958.[55]

Creative industries[edit]

Eastborough. Scarborough Castle on skyline

Creative industries have been cited as playing a vital role in the regeneration of Scarborough; a report in 2005 estimated that they comprised 19% of the town's economy. They were also a major focus of Scarborough's winning entry in the 2008 Enterprising Britain competition, with representatives from Woodend Creative Workspace and Scarborough-based Electric Angel Design representing the town in the Yorkshire and Humber regional heats. In the finals in London on 16 October 2008, Scarborough won the title of Britain's Most Enterprising Town,[56] and subsequently went on to win the European Enterprise Awards as Great Britain's representative, on 13 May 2009 in Prague.[57]

In 2010 the town was the winner of the 'Great Town Award', as nominated by the Academy of Urbanism, beating Chester and Cambridge respectively.[58]

Media[edit]

Scarborough was home to local commercial radio station, Yorkshire Coast Radio, in August 2018 the station achieved the highest weekly reach of any radio station in England with a 53% weekly reach.[59]However in August 2020 YCR ceased broadcasting as it was bought out by Bauer Media and rebranded as Greatest Hits Radio Yorkshire Coast. The radio DJs and staff were made redundant.[60] Some of the YCR team have since launched a new local station for the area, This is the Coast, broadcasting online and on DAB.[61]

The town is also the home of the online only community radio station, Radio Scarborough.[62] The station was raided in August 2017 by Ofcom for illegally broadcasting their service.[63]

The Scarborough News, is the weekly newspaper for the town and local district. It was first published on 31 May 2012, as a relaunch of the former daily publication, The Scarborough Evening News. The first newspaper recorded as printed in the town, was in 1876

Healthcare[edit]

Scarborough General Hospital is the local district general NHS hospital. It is run by the York Teaching Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, and is the largest employer in the area employing over 2,400 staff. A review of acute healthcare in the town in 2019 identified problems recruiting staff at the hospital but promised to maintain the site's Accident and Emergency department.[64]

Demography[edit]

The Sands Development

The population of the town (comprising Castle, Central, Eastfield, Falsgrave Park, Newby, North Bay, Northstead, Ramshill, Stepney, Weaponness and Woodlands wards) is just over 60,000. However, the Borough of Scarborough, which includes the coastal towns of Whitby and Filey, has a population of around 108,000; during the peak season, tourism can double these figures. 7.5% of the population are aged over 60, compared with an average of 20.9% nationally. Only 21.9% of the population are aged between 20 and 39, compared to 28.1% nationally.

Transport[edit]

Road[edit]

Scarborough has four major roads serving the town; these also link it to other major towns and cities.

  • A64 – Main road that terminates in the town centre, linking Scarborough with Malton, York, Leeds, the A19 and the A1(M). This is the main tourist route to the town and is Dual Carriageway standard for some of its route (between the A1(M) and Malton).
  • A165 – This is the coastal route that links the town with Filey, Bridlington and Hull. In 2008, a new road was opened to bypass Osgodby to the south of Scarborough. This now forms part of the A165.
  • A170 – This links Scarborough to the North York Moors and Thirsk to the west.
  • A171 – This is the coastal route to the north that links the town with Whitby and Middlesbrough.

Scarborough has 25 main bus routes, operated by Scarborough and District, Arriva North East, Shoreline Suncruisers, and Yorkshire Coastliner. These link the town centre with its suburbs and local towns and cities such as Leeds, York, Hull, Bridlington, Whitby, Middlesbrough and the North York Moors.

The town is also served by two Park and Ride services, with locations on the A64 and A165. Buses run from each terminus to the town centre and South Bay at least every 12 minutes seven days a week, with stopping points around the town centre. Buses from the Filey Road terminus on the A165 also stop at the University. Open top tourist buses also run along the sea front and Marine Drive, linking the South and North bays.

Rail[edit]

Scarborough railway station

Scarborough railway station is close to the town centre and runs services from York, Leeds, Manchester and Liverpool on the North TransPennine Express route and from Hull on the Yorkshire Coast Line. It has the longest station seat in the world at 152 yards (139 m) in length. The town used to be connected to Whitby, via the Scarborough and Whitby Railway along the Yorkshire coast, but this closed in 1965 as part of the Beeching cuts. There is also a railway station in the suburb of Crossgates.

There are two operational funicular railways, both situated on South Bay. An additional funicular exists on the South Bay but no longer operates, and two funiculars on North Bay have been demolished.

An electric tramway service with six routes was provided by the Scarborough Tramways Company between 1904 and 1931, after which it was bought by the council and replaced by omnibuses.[65]

Waters[edit]

Although the town has no ferry services, there are transport links to Hull which runs frequent services to northern Europe.

Culture[edit]

Stephen Joseph Theatre

Live theatre[edit]

Dramatist Alan Ayckbourn has lived in Scarborough for many years. He has produced seventy-five plays in Scarborough and was formerly the artistic director of the Stephen Joseph Theatre, where almost all his plays receive their first performance. Chris Monks took over as artistic director in 2009,[66] followed by Paul Robinson in 2016.

The Open Air Theatre, at the Northstead Manor Gardens, originally had a seating capacity of 6,500 (now 8,000). The Lord Mayor of London opened the theatre in 1932 and audiences flocked to see Merrie England, the opera was the first work to be staged at the outdoor venue.[67] Productions were performed during the summer seasons until musicals ceased in 1968 after West Side Story, apart from a YMCA production in 1982. In 1997, the dressing rooms and stage set building on the island were demolished and the seating removed. The last concert to be held at the open-air theatre before it closed in 1986 was James Last and his orchestra. The venue was restored and officially opened by The Queen on 20 May 2010.[68] The venue is now a prime concert locality.

The YMCA Theatre is an amateur theatre seating 290. It hosts some 35 productions a year, including musicals and dance shows.[69]

Cinema[edit]

As of 2019, Scarborough has two cinemas, the Hollywood Plaza and the Stephen Joseph Theatre.

A third, the Futurist Theatre, closed in January 2014 when the operator's lease expired.[70] The building was later demolished.[71] A new cinema development in the North Bay is due to open in 2020.[72]

Creative arts and museums[edit]

The Rotunda Museum

Scarborough has a long-established museum and visual-arts facilities. Wood End, the former home of The Sitwells, was converted into the Woodend museum,[note 1] a creative centre including workspace for artists and the digital cluster, plus an exhibition space.[73] The Rotunda Museum underwent a multimillion-pound redevelopment to become a national centre for geology.[74] 2006 also saw the formation of a creative industries network called 'Creative Coast' comprising artists, designers, writers and other creatives with the shared vision of a culturally vibrant economy on the North Yorkshire coast.[75]

The Rotunda Museum nowadays forms part of the Scarborough Museums Trust. The other part is the Scarborough Art Gallery, which houses the collections of fine arts since 1947. This gallery is based in a Grade II* Italianate villa, Crescent Villa, that was built in the 1840s.[76]

Scarborough has a considerable graffiti culture, with as many as 20 'writers' currently active. There are two areas where graffiti art is legal in Scarborough, Sainsbury's basketball courts / all-weather pitch and Falsgrave Park wall. Both have seen many collaborations and murals.

Music[edit]

The Grade II listed Scarborough Spa complex is home to the Scarborough Spa Orchestra, the last remaining seaside orchestra in the UK.[77]

The globally successful pop / soul singer Robert Palmer spent his teenage years in Scarborough, attending Scarborough High School for Boys'.[78]

During the late 1980s and the first half of the 1990s, Scarborough band Little Angels were one of the best known hard rock bands in the UK. Their third and final studio album, Jam, peaked at No. 1 on the UK charts in early 1993.[79] Chris Helme of The Seahorses, Eliza Carthy, Ashley Hicklin, Oliver Knight and Sophia Wardman, also attended schools and colleges in the area.

'Acoustic Gathering', a free one-day music festival, has been held annually in Peasholm Park, since September 2005. This features over 20 bands and singer/songwriters from all parts of the UK including a number of local groups and musicians, all performing from the bandstand in the centre of the lake.[80]Finnish idols winner Koop Arponen filmed his video for the song, "Young and Foolish" in the town, and One Night Only shot the video for their hit Just For Tonight, mostly along Scarborough foreshore.

Location for filming[edit]

The films Little Voice,[81] Possession, and A Chorus of Disapproval[82] were filmed on location in Scarborough and surrounds. Also shot in the Scarborough (borough) & North York Moors are over 90 films, documentaries and various TV programmes. Films include An Inspector Calls, Miranda, Dancing Queen, Beltenebros, The Brides in the Bath, Screwed, The Damned United, Scarborough, A is for Acid and Saint Maud. Television series filmed in the area include Heartbeat, its spin-off series The Royal, CBBC's All at Sea, BBC1's Rosie, BBC1's Remember Me, German TV crime drama, The Search, scenes from the second series of Five Days and an episode each of Barbara, Coronation Street & Last of the Summer Wine. The 2015 series of The Syndicate starring Anthony Andrews, Melanie Hill and Lenny Henry also filmed scenes in Scarborough.[83] A sitcom named Scarborough was filmed in the town in 2019. The show being the brainchild of Derren Litten the creator of ITV hit Benidorm was based on a group of friends who meet up for Karaoke nights in the town.[84][85] The show first aired on BBC1 on 6 September 2019 in a primetime Friday night slot (9:30 pm) the day before transmission the first two episodes were given a 'world premiere' to an audience at the Stephen Joseph Theatre.[86][87] The third series of reality TV show Celebs on the Farm, was filmed on location in the outskirts of the town, in 2021.

Notable events[edit]

  • Sci-Fi Scarborough - Since 2014 Scarborough has hosted its own "Unconventional Convention" at The Spa Complex. It is usually held in March or April each year. Sci-Fi Scarborough is a mix of Sci-Fi Convention, Comicon and gaming convention.[citation needed]
  • Seafest - Seafest is an annual festival which takes place at West Pier and around the harbour area in July.[88] It celebrates the region's fishing history and hosts a large gathering of folk singers, shantymen and musicians, drawing artists from all over the U.K. and from other nations including Senegal, Sicily, Canada, Éire, Luxembourg, Germany, the Netherlands, Brittany and the USA. In addition there are children's entertainments and a 'Sea Fish Cookery' marquee where visiting chefs demonstrate seafood preparation. The event celebrated its 20th anniversary in 2018.[89]
  • Heroes Welcome UK - Heroes Welcome is a movement which originated in and is administered from Scarborough to encourage communities to demonstrate support to members of the armed forces.[90] In 2008 a hand-drawn poster stating "Heroes Welcome Here" was displayed in a Scarborough seafront restaurant.[91] From this gesture has evolved a national network of towns, cities and counties.[92] Businesses are invited to display a sticker extending a special welcome to service personnel. Member communities are located as far north as the Oykel Valley in the Scottish Highlands to as far south as the Falkland Islands. The Rock of Gibraltar joined in February 2013.[93] The Heroes Welcome event in Scarborough has become a regular part of Armed Forces Day and celebrated its 10th anniversary in 2018.[94]
  • Armed Forces Day - Since 2009 Scarborough has hosted the armed forces day event on the last Saturday of June which includes a display of army vehicles and weapons along the South Bay. The event also includes air displays from various aircraft and ends with a parade along the road. In 2020, Scarborough was due to be the host town, for the national Armed Forces Day event, which was subsequently postponed due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[95]
  • Tour de Yorkshire - Scarborough is the only town to have hosted either a start or finish event in every edition of the Tour de Yorkshire.[96]

Twinning[edit]

Scarborough is twinned with:

  • Cahir, Ireland

Scarborough is affiliated with HMS Duncan.[97]

Education[edit]

University of Hull Scarborough Campus

The four main state secondary schools in Scarborough are Graham School, George Pindar School, Scalby School, and St Augustine's Catholic School. Raincliffe School formally closed on 31 August 2012, merging with Graham School (the Raincliffe site closed completely on 23 June 2017). In September 2016, Scarborough University Technical College (UTC) opened for 14- to 18-year-olds. The campus is part of a £47 million pound development including Coventry University Scarborough Campus and a sports village in the Weaponness Valley.[98]

Scarborough is also home to one private school, Scarborough College (for ages 3 to 18 years). Scarborough College abolished A-levels and has been an International Baccalaureate (IB) World School since June 2006.[99] Ranked within Top 50 independent schools by The Times based on post-16 results, 2017.

Scarborough International School of English,[100] established in 1968 is accredited by the British Council and members of English UK and English UK North. The school offers English Language courses to students from around the world.

There is also a private international language school called Anglolang,[101] established in 1985, which teaches the English language to overseas students, companies, educational institutions, organised groups and individuals.

Education in Scarborough has been notable for its commitment to the digital economy, particularly with the formation of the University of Hull's School of Arts and New Media, at the Scarborough Campus in 2006. This made Scarborough one of the UK mainland's first wireless campuses.[102]

In 2015, Coventry University Scarborough Campus opened in the town with a small first cohort and moved from temporary accommodation to a purpose-built site in September 2016. Ultimately, the university will cater for 3000 students studying an innovative, intensive pattern of study.[103] Further Education is provided by Scarborough Sixth Form College and Yorkshire Coast College, which took over the University of Hull's campus in Scarborough in 2016.

Sport[edit]

The Scarborough Amateur Rowing Club was founded in May 1869, and is the oldest surviving rowing club on the north-east coast.[104] For more than 100 years, sea rowing has taken place on the Yorkshire coast between the Tees and the Humber. Beginning with friendly rivalry between the fishermen and the jet miners from Blyth (the German Ocean Race), the sport has progressed to what it is today. More recent successes for the club include Bob Hewitt, who now competes as a lightweight rower for the national team. In 2006 the club finally won the acclaimed Wilson Cup, until then held by rival clubs in neighbouring town Whitby for over eighty years. Rowing takes place throughout the summer months.

The Blue Riband event for Scarborough Yacht Club, is the annual 210 nautical mile race, from the town, to IJmuiden in the Netherlands.[105] The Yacht Club is based in the old keepers' accommodation adjoining Scarborough Pier Lighthouse in the harbour.

Scarborough is home to the Oliver's Mount racing circuit. This track is composed of twisty public roads and has played host to domestic motorcycling and rallying events for many years. Noted motorcycle racers who have raced at Oliver's Mount include Barry Sheene, Ron Haslam and Guy Martin. The town was the home of the 2nd RAC Rally in 1952. In March 2019 newly formed motorcycle racing club, Two Four Three Road Racing Association was granted a lease to run road races at the venue, and they restarted road racing at the venue in July 2019 after a year's absence.[106]

Scarborough Cricket Club have won the ECB National Club Cricket Championship at Lord's, on five occasions between 1972 and 1982, a record number of victories. The club also hosts the annual Scarborough Cricket Festival, and Yorkshire play at North Marine Road, in a selection of home fixtures throughout the season. The club has competed in the Yorkshire Premier League North since 2016. The club has enjoyed great success in the Yorkshire League, in the past.

The former Scarborough Football Club enjoyed a career in the Football League during the 1990s before being relegated to the Conference North in 2006 and to the Northern Premier League the following year. One of its greatest achievements was winning the FA Trophy at Wembley Stadium on three occasions and being runners-up on one. They were also the first club to win automatic promotion to the Football League, when in 1987 they were promoted as champions of the GM Vauxhall Conference. In 2007 a new club, Scarborough Athletic, was formed and they play their home matches at the Flamingo Land Stadium.[107]

In 2007, the town hosted the World Thundercat Championships (for inflatable powerboats), and similar events in 2008 and 2015.[108] Scarborough Rugby Union Football Club moved to a new £4-million ground development, on the outskirts of town in January 2009 (Silver Royd), the club is very ambitious and reached the semi-finals of the RFU Intermediate Cup, in 2015. The venue is also home to Scarborough Athletic Club and many sports facilities. The nationally achieving Scarborough Gymnastics Academy, has a highly developed specialist facility in the west of the town. Scarborough Sports Centre was a past venue for international tennis tournaments, attracting such stars as Fred Perry, Rod Laver and Pancho Gonzales. Scarborough Indoor Bowls Centre is utilized for a variety of events, throughout the year.

The town has two principal golf courses, North Cliff and South Cliff, plus some smaller ventures. Ganton Golf Club, which has hosted tournaments such as the Ryder Cup and Walker Cup, is situated approximately 8 miles to the west of Scarborough.

George Pindar School, which is based at Eastfield, is a Sports Community College, and is home to Scarborough Pirates ARLFC, Scarborough Seahawks Basketball and formerly Scarborough Hockey Club, who are now at Scarborough College. The centre also has a tennis facility. Scarborough Table Tennis Centre is located at Graham School.

A national martial arts organisation, The Empire Martial Arts Association, is based in Scarborough.[citation needed]

The Tourist Information Centre in the South Bay is the finishing point of The White Rose Way, a long distance walk from Leeds.[109]

Scarborough was the finishing point, for Stage 1 of the inaugural 2015 Tour de Yorkshire, hosted on 1 May, and has hosted a stage finish every year since.[110]

A sports village based in Weaponness Valley, that is now the home stadium of Scarborough Athletic, was opened in July 2017.[111][112]

In recent decades, due to frequent low pressure systems in the North Atlantic, Scarborough has also become home to a thriving cold water surfing scene with numerous surf shops and competitions taking place including the King of The Point, a big wave contest designed to show off the quality of surf the North Yorkshire coast can receive.[113]

Notable people[edit]

For a fuller list, see Category:People from Scarborough, North Yorkshire.
  • Sir Alan Ayckbourn (born 1939), playwright.[114]
  • Florence Balgarnie (1856–1928), suffragette, speaker, pacifist, feminist, temperance activist.
  • Anne Brontë – (1820–1849) novelist and poet, died at Scarborough and buried in St Mary's churchyard.[115]
  • Richard Dunn, boxer, British, European & Commonwealth Heavyweight Champion (1975-1976).[116]
  • Sir Edward James Harland, 1st Baronet (1831–1895), shipbuilder and politician, co-founder of Harland and Wolff.[117]
  • Dick Hewitt (1943–2017), Moorthorpe-born footballer.[118]
  • Susan Hill (born 1942), novelist.[119]
  • Paul Ingle (born 1972), former IBF featherweight champion.[120]
  • Sir Ben Kingsley (born 1943), (b. Snainton, 1943), Oscar-winning actor.[121]
  • Charles Laughton (1899–1962), actor, screenwriter, film producer and director.[122]
  • Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton (1830–1896), painter and sculptor.[123]
  • John Hick (1922–2012), philosopher of religion.[124]
  • James Paul Moody, (1887–1912), Sixth Officer of the RMS Titanic.
  • Bill Nicholson, (1919 - 2004), footballer and manager.
  • Mikey North (born 1986), Coronation Street actor.
  • Jake Pratt (born 1996), actor.
  • Benjamin Pulleyne, Oxford don and headmaster of Gresham's School[125]
  • Jimmy Savile (1926–2011), media personality and prolific sex offender. Resided in Scarborough and is buried there in an unmarked grave.[126]
  • Robert de Scardeburgh (died c. 1351), Lord Chief Justice of Ireland.[127]
  • John Senior (born 1960), survivor of the Lakonia disaster and founder of Heroes Welcome UK.[128]
  • The Sitwells, (born late 1800s), artistic, musical and literary family.[129]
  • William Smith, The Father of English Geology, lived in Scarborough where he suggested the design of the Rotunda.[130]
  • Dame Penelope Wilton (born 1946), actress.[131]


Gallery[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The museum is listed as being Wood End, but is shown on the same page as Woodend since its revamp

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Bibliography[edit]

  • Leider, Emily Wortis (14 October 1990). "A writer's resort". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
  • Page, William, ed. (1923). "The Borough of Scarborough". A History of the County of York North Riding: Volume 2'. Victoria County History. Institute of Historical Research. pp. 538–560.

External links[edit]

  • Scarborough Archaeological and Historical Society
  • Official tourism website
  • This is The Coast Scarborough News
  • The Scarborough News
  • Dalrymple, Theodore: Scarborough unfair at The Spectator, 7 May 2011